J Pure Appl Microbiol | Review Article | Volume 13, Issue 1 | Article Number: 5501
Mohd. Iqbal Yatoo*1, Oveas Raffiq Parray1, Riyaz Ahmed Bhat1, Muheet1, Arumugam Gopalakrishnan2, Archana Saxena3, Sandip Chakraborty4, Ruchi Tiwari5, Sandip Kumar Khurana6, Shoor Vir Singh7 and Kuldeep Dhama8
Corresponding Author E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received:02/02/2019| Accepted: 06/03/2018 | Published: 16/03/2019
Emerging antibiotic resistance among mycoplasma microorganisms is of major concern in present times as they cause various diseases in both animals and humans. Mycoplasmoses, infections caused by mycoplasma microorganisms have become common in recent past and have gained importance both due to inability to diagnose and difficulty to treat. Respiratory tract infection, mastitis, arthritis, and septicemia caused by Mycoplasma in livestock are responsible for causing heavy economic losses. These diseases are frequently reported from countries of Africa and Asia, including India. Antimycoplasma antibiotics are frequently being used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of mycoplasmoses infection in livestock. They include macrolides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, and aminoglycosides which are the main antibiotic classes commonly used against mycoplasma globally. Oxytetracyclines are the commonest antibiotics used for decades followed by enrofloxacin, tylosin, and streptomycin. Danofloxacin, lincomycin, spiramycin, erythromycin, gamithromycin, azithromycin, clarithromycin, gentamicin, doxycycline, and tulathromycin are also used occasionally. Continuous and unregulated use of these antibiotics over prolonged period can lead to menace of antibiotic resistance which is aided by inappropriate doses and uncontrolled use. Resistance to some antibiotics is already emerging. Mycoplasmas have devised different resistance mechanisms for combating antimicrobial action of these drugs. Common mechanisms noted are acquisitions of proteins affecting ribosomal subunits, inhibition of antibiotic efflux, structural changes in the ribosomal subunit, target mutations, expression or production of enzymes. Additional novel mechanisms of resistance still need to be investigated. Strategies for prevention and encountering of this antibiotic resistance are being devised by alternating antibiotics in application, using antimycoplasma antibiotic sensitivity tests, along with evaluation of specific doses and exploration of novel mycoplasma specific class of antibiotics. Novel targets based on various cell structures including cell membrane, organelles, proteins, enzymes or metabolites are being explored for antimycoplasma therapy. These all will help in effective therapeutic management of mycoplasmoses with minimal side effects.
Antibiotics, Mycoplasma, Novel drug Targets, antibiotic resistance.
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