ISSN: 0973-7510

E-ISSN: 2581-690X

Research Article | Open Access

Deepika Pandey Tiwari1,2, Poonam Mishra Chatterjee1,2, Niyati Uppadhyaya1, Anirban Bhaduri1, Ritu Raval2 and Ashok Kumar Dubey1,2

1Food Science and Technology, Tata Chemicals Limited-Innovation Centre, Survey No. 315, Hissa No. 1-14, Ambedveth (V), Paud Road, Mulshi, Pune – 412 111, Maharashtra, India.
2Department of Biotechnology, Manipal Institute of Technology-Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal – 576 104, Karnataka, India.
J Pure Appl Microbiol, 2019, 13 (2): | Article Number: 5600

© The Author(s). 2019 

Received: 09/03/2019| Accepted: 03/05/2019 | Published: 11/06/2019

Poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) is a homopolyamide, biosynthesized mostly by Bacillus sp. Our study focuses on understanding the genetic differences between the two species of Bacillus for their capability to produce PGA. Genes related to PGA synthesis, regulation, degradation and mannitol utilization of Bacillus subtilis Natto3 (BSN3) were compared with that of B. methylotrophicus IC4 (BMIC4). These strains differed in their genome sizes and average gene lengths. BMIC4 genome size was 4,214,684 bp which was larger than BSN3 comprising of 3,601,055 bp with no plasmid found in either of them. The average gene length of BSN3 and BMIC4 were 843.33 bp and 819.82 bp, respectively with higher number of predicted genes and proteins in BMIC4 (4341 and 4223 respectively). Interestingly, BMIC4 being larger in genome size and gene number, exhibited lesser number of unique pfam results (62) compared to 389 unique pfam of BSN3. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, BSN3 and BMIC4 were placed distantly on the phylogenetic tree. Sequence similarity of PGA producing genes ywsC, ywtA and ywtB between BSN3 and BMIC4 was 100%, 100% and 30% respectively. We report the presence of PGA degrading gene pgdS in BMIC4 which is otherwise reportedly absent in various strains of B. methylotrophicus. Sequence variation in the genes may have an impact on the PGA chain length, produced by these strains as BMIC4 produces high molecular weight PGA than BSN3. As B. methylotrophicus is newly discovered species, our comparative study will provide insights on the genomic variability between these two novel PGA producing strains.


Whole genome sequencing, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus methylotrophicus, PGA, pgdS

Article Metrics

Views: 16

Share This Article

Journal Tools

Journal Metrics 2018

© The Author(s) 2019. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, sharing, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.