Worldwide concern about the energy security and search for alternate energy source as fuel has created attention because of increased demand and fast depleting nonrenewable resources of fuel. In order to meet the increasing energy demand, we need to approach the sustainable, cost-effective alternates which should be able to cater unlimited resource utilization potential. Among the next-generation biofuels, butanol is the one which shows the ability to meet both the current and upcoming future energy crisis over the existing biofuels, for its distinguished merits; high energy density, high air-fuel ratio and lower hygroscopicity which make butanol superior over the other. In this review, we summarized all the methods attempted to screen out a high-stress tolerant strain through the various approach like; variation in sampling methods, media optimization, manipulation in physiochemical parameters etc. and then adapting them to high butanol environment. Secondly, the possible techniques involved in the identification of butanol tolerant gene and its overexpression in heterologous host or butanol tolerant microbes through genetic engineering, manipulating the metabolic pathway through engineering synergistically integrated with other disciplines such as synthetic biology as well as systems biology, has been discussed in detail. Apart from this, the present review also highlights the various bottlenecks, achievements and prospects for the commercialization of the butanol as the next generation of biofuel.
Butanol, Clostridium sp., Biofuels, Solvent toxicity, Tolerance, Energy.
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