Pinkal Patel and Ratna Trivedi

Department of Microbiology, Shree Ramkrishna Institute of Applied Sciences,
M.T.B College Campus, Athwalines, Surat – 395 001, Gujarat, India.

ABSTRACT

The macrofungi thrive in different four areas namely Vansda, Waghai, Kaprada, Aamolia region. Maximum Microbial diversity was observed in  sample collected from waghai location includes, Taxa_S-31, Individual-31, Dominance_D-0.032 , Simpson_1-D-0.96, Shannon_H-3.434 , Evenness- 1, Brillouin-2.519, Menhinick-5.568, Margalef-8.736, Equitability J-1, Fisher Alpha-0, Berger-Parker-0.322,Chao-496. The decrease numbers of specimens consistently found with the location Waghai,  Whittaker- 0.16129, Harrison-  0.0046083, Cody- 4, Wilson-shmida- 4.6452, Mourelle- 0.13272 followed by Kaparada and Vansda region.

Keywords: Diversity indices, Alpha and Beta Diversity, Macrofungi.

INTRODUCTION

The term alpha and beta diversity was introduced by R. H. Whittaker.  The idea was that the total species diversity in a landscape (γ) is determined by two different things, the mean species diversity at the habitat level (α) and the differentiation among habitats (β). Fungi of various taxonomic groups producing conspicuous sporocarps are collectively known as macrofungi which include gilled fungi, jelly fungi, coral fungi, stinkhorns, bracket fungi, puffballs, and bird’s nest fungi (Bates,2006). The issue of fungal diversity, its extent and conservation, has attracted more attention in the last 10 to 15 years than in any period of history (Hawksworth, 2004). Mushrooms appear to be collected and consumed during almost the entire year, but most fungi are collected during the rainy seasons, suggesting the importance of rainfall patterns in fungal phenology (Dijket al., 2003).The components most often studied are: (i) alpha (local) diversity; (ii) gamma (regional) diversity, which can be considered as an equivalent to alpha diversity on a larger scale, but reflects the allopatric distribu- tion of related taxa, and; (iii) beta diversity that measures turnover of species between communities, but for which thereis no universally accepted measure (Whittaker et al., 2001; Koleffet al., 2003).

MATERIALS AND METHOD

Study Area
The main sampling sites in this study wereVansda, Waghai, Kaprada, Aamolia.

Collection
In order to initiate mushroom study, it is necessary to collect healthy specimen in sufficient amount and collection should be collected in all developmental stage. Each species should be hold separately in plastic perforated bags. Mushroom fruit body were carefully detached from host or removed from ground without damaging its entire part. Note papers should be carried out at collection site to make on the spot field notes. A brief note such as growing habit, habitat, host, locality, collection type and number, date of collection should be recorded each time on the field note which is further tagged with collection.

Collection kit
There are some equipment used for collection includes, Basket- A broad basket with broad base is necessary for transportation of collected mushrooms to the laboratory or work place in proper condition. Plastic bags- Plastic bags with perforated holes used for putting collected mushrooms. Knife- It is required for digging up mushrooms and detaching them from their host and to remove debris attached with mushrooms. Forceps were used for the collection of very small sporocarps. Note papers are required for taking field notes. Other accessories includes hand lens, hand gloves, photographic equipments.

Microbial Diversity Indices calculation: Microbial diversity index was calculated by Past 3 software(Hyvind Hammer, 2001).

 Table 1. Sampling site

Sr. No Localities Latitude, Longitude
1. Vansda 20.45° N, 73.22° E
2. Waghai 20.46° N, 73.29° E
3. Kaparada 20.61° N, 72.92° E
4. Aamolia 21.12° N, 73.40° E

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The present experiment include survey for mushroom diversity in four location Vansda, Waghai, Kaprada, Aamolia region.Their distribution was fluctuated during the survey period.25 samples from Vansda region, 31samples from waghai region, 20 samples from kaparada region and 16 samples from Aamolia.

Table 2. Alpha diversity indices

Vansada Waghai Kaparada Aamolia
Taxa_S 23 31 21 16
Individuals 23 31 21 16
Dominance_D 0.04348 0.03226 0.04762 0.0625
Simpson_1-D 0.9565 0.9677 0.9524 0.9375
Shannon_H 3.135 3.434 3.045 2.773
Evenness_e^H/S 1 1 1 1
Brillouin 2.244 2.519 2.161 1.917
Menhinick 4.796 5.568 4.583 4
Margalef 7.016 8.736 6.569 5.41
Equitability_J 1 1 1 1
Fisher_alpha 0 0 0 0
Berger-Parker 0.04348 0.03226 0.04762 0.0625
Chao-1 276 496 231 136

 

Table 3. Global beta diversities

Vansada Waghai Kaparada Aamolia
Whittaker 0.56522 0.16129 0.71429 1.25
Harrison 0.016149 0.0046083 0.020408 0.035714
Cody 11 4 9.5 9.5
Routledge -2.949E-17 -2.4937E-18 8.0773E-17 -1.1167E-17
Wilson-Shmida 17.217 4.6452 16.286 21.375
Mourelle 0.49193 0.13272 0.46531 0.61071
Harrison 2 0 0 0 0
Williams 0 0 0 0

 

Microbial diversity Indices had been prepared with Past3 software (Table-2 & 3). Maximum Microbial diversity was observed in  sample collected from waghai location includes, Taxa_S-31, Individual-31, Dominance_D-0.032 , Simpson_1-D-0.96, Shannon_H-3.434 , Evenness- 1, Brillouin-2.519, Menhinick-5.568, Margalef-8.736, Equitability J-1, Fisher Alpha-0, Berger-Parker-0.322,Chao-496. Minimum Diversity was observed in sample collected from Aamolia location which includes,Taxa_S-16,Individual-16,Dominance_D-0.0625,Simpson_1-D-0.9375 ,Shannon_H-2.773 ,Evenness-1 ,Brillouin-1.917,Menhinick- 4,Margalef- 5.41,Equitability- 1,Fisher Alpha-0 ,Berger-Parker-0.0625,Chao-136.

Using (dis)similarity or related coefficients as measures of beta diversity is a common practice (Johannsson&Minns, 1987; Philippi et al., 1998; Anderson et al., 2006; Ferrier et al., 2007; Ricotta &Marignani, 2007). Beta diversity decreases with increase in sample number. The maximum decrease numbers of specimens consistently found with the location Waghai,  Whittaker- 0.16129, Harrison-  0.0046083, Cody- 4, Wilson-shmida- 4.6452, Mourelle- 0.13272.  Followed by Kaparada and Vansda region. The increase numbers is with Aamolia region. As several authors have previously pointed out for different datasets and measures (Fisher, 1999; Plotkin& Muller-Landau, 2002; Chao et al., 2005) theoretical or empirical, beta diversity typically decreases with increasing sampling effort. The decrease in beta diversity with an increasing number of sampled individuals is usually constant and diversity values often do not asymptote.Pedroet al., (2009) has performed testing the beta diversity indices.

Krishnappaet al., (2014) had also worked on Diversity index of Simphon and Shannon of Chikmagalur districtfor five years study 2007-2011. Simpson diversity index value was highest during 2007 (D= 0.031) showing maximum diversity followed by 2008-09, 2010 (D= 0.032) and 2011 (D= 0.033).Shannon diversity index of Chikmagalur district was found to be 4.35, 4.18, 4.32, 4.14, 4.01 during 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011 respectively. Diversity reached its peak in the year 2007 (H’= 4.35). The Simpson diversity index was calculated and diversity was found to be more during 2007 (D= 0.015).Pushpaet al., (2012) had surveyed eight different locations of Banglore from that, Simpson diversity index (1-D)of  JnanaBharathi (0.92), Raman Research Institute campus (0.95), Savandurga forest (0.92) was same as our results.The Simpson and Shannon’s diversity index was found to be 0.9210 and 0.1513. The evenness and species richness was found to be 0.9244 and 1.3379 respectively.

The result for Mergalef Index was in favour with the Type II: Cryptomeriafortunei forest (7.8695), Type V: mixed bamboo- broadleaf forest (5.4866), studied by Shujianget al., (2012).Simpson and Shannon diversity index of Idenau site, Ekonalelu site (0.9042), (0.9217) and (2.7477), (2.7950) respectively, found by Egbeet al., (2013).Sandhyaet al., (2015) also calculated Shannon diversity index,Simpson Index, Evenness and the Species richness (Menhinick Index)of Chuhiyaforest, Rewa Local Area, Sohagi forest, Teonthar forest, Semariyaforest,which includes forest area as well as grassland of the mushroom.Shannon’s diversity and Simpson diversity index was found to be 0.9901 and 0.8903 respectively. Species richness and species evenness of this region was found to be 1.06 and 0.9175 respectively.

Conclusion

The presence or absence of fungal species is a useful indicator to assess the damage or thematurity of an ecosystem. Data on their diversity in different vegetation types is important for planning andmanaging ecosystem biodiversity. Diversity indices comparesDominance of single species under different environmental condition or in same Ecosystem, It can also measure relative abundance of each species from total number of Individual, species richness, evenness.

REFERENCES

  1. Anderson, M.J., Ellingsen, K.E. &McArdle, B.H. (2006) Mul- tivariate dispersion as a measure of beta diversity. Ecology Letters, 9, 683–693.
  2. Bates SC. (2006). A preliminary checklist of Arizona macrofungi. Canotia. 2(2): 47-78.
  3. Chao, A., Chazdon, R.L., Colwell, R.K. &Tsung-Jen, S. (2005) A new statistical approach for assessing similarity of species composition with incidence and abundance data. Ecology Letters, 8, 148–159.
  4. Dijk HV, Onguene NA, Kuyper TW (2003). Knowledge and utilization of edible mushrooms by local populations of the rain forest of South Cameroon. Ambio 32:19-23.
  5. DwivediSandhya , Singh Surendra , Chauhan U.K and TiwariMahendra Kumar (2015). First Report on Unreported Macrofungal diversity of Vindhyan Region of Central India with special reference to Agaricales. Int. Res. J. Environment Sci.Vol. 4(8), 50-59. ISSN 2319–1414.
  6. EgbeEnow Andrew, Tonjock Rosemary, Kinge ,Ebai Maureen Tabi1, NjiThiobal and Afui Mathias Mih. (2013).Journal of Ecology and the Natural Environment. Vol. 5(10), 318-334.
  7. Ferrier, S., Manion, G., Elith, J. & Richardson, K. (2007) Using generalized dissimilarity modelling to analyse and predict patterns of beta diversity in regional biodiversity assessment. Diversity and Distributions, 13, 252–264.
  8. Fisher, B.L. (1999) Improving inventory efficiency: a case study of leaf-litter ant diversity in Madagascar. Ecological Appli- cations, 9, 714–731.
  9. Pushpa and K.B. Purushothama (2012), Biodiversity of Mushrooms in and Around Bangalore (Karnataka), India.American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 12 (6): 750-759, ISSN 1818-6769.
  10. Hawksworth LD (2004). Fungal diversity and its implications for genetic resource collections. Studies in Mycol 50:9-18.
  11. Johannsson, O.E. &Minns, C.K. (1987) Examination of association indices and formulation of a composite seasonal dissimilarity index. Hydrobiologia, 150, 109–121.
  12. Koleff, P., Gaston, K.J. & Lennon, J.J. (2003) Measuring beta diversity for presence-absence data. Journal of Animal Ecol- ogy, 72, 367–382.
  13. Krishnappa M, Swapna S and Syed Abrar (2014). Diversity of macrofungal communities in chikmagalur district of western ghats, ICMBMP. 71-82
  14. Øyvind Hammer, D. A. T. H., and Paul D. Ryan (2001). ” Paleontological Statistics Software Package For Education And Data Analysis.” Palaeontologia Electronica 4( 1): 4-9.
  15. Pedro Cardoso, Paulo A. V. Borges and Joseph A. Veech (2009). Testing the performance of beta diversity measures based on incidence data: the robustness to undersampling. Diversity and Distributions, 15, 1081–1090.
  16. Philippi, T.E., Dixon, P.M. & Taylor, B.E. (1998) Detecting trends in species composition. Ecological Applications, 8, 300–308.
  17. Plotkin, J.B. & Muller-Landau, H.C. (2002) Sampling the species composition of a landscape. Ecology, 83, 3344– 3356.
  18. Ricotta, C. &Marignani, M. (2007) Computing b-diversity with Rao’s quadratic entropy: a change of perspective. Diversity and Distributions, 13, 237–241.
  19. Shujiang Li, Tianhui Zhu, Guanghai Liu and Hanmingyue Zhu (2012). African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 11(8), 1970-1976. ISSN 1684–5315.
  20. Whittaker, R.J., Willis, K.J. & Field, R. (2001) Scale and species richness: towards a general, hierarchical theory of species diversity. Journal of Biogeography, 28, 453–470.